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Cosmos In Brief - Aktualní novinky vesmírného výzkumu v kostce
VIRGO
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VIRGO --- 0:36:34 10.12.2016
LIGO black hole echoes hint at general-relativity breakdown : Nature News & Comment
http://www.nature.com/news/ligo-black-hole-echoes-hint-at-general-relativity-breakdown-1.21135
Gravitational-wave data show tentative signs of firewalls or other exotic physics.

It was hailed as an elegant confirmation of Einstein’s general theory of relativity — but ironically the discovery of gravitational waves
earlier this year could herald the first evidence that the theory breaks down at the edge of black holes. Physicists have analysed the publicly
released data from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), and claim to have found “echoes” of the waves that seem to
contradict general relativity’s predictions.

The echoes could yet disappear with more data. If they persist, the finding would be extraordinary. Physicists have predicted that Einstein’s
hugely successful theory could break down in extreme scenarios, such as at the centre of black holes. The echoes would indicate the even more
dramatic possibility that relativity fails at the black hole’s edge, far from its core.

If the echoes go away, then general relativity will have withstood a test of its power — previously, it wasn’t clear that physicists would be
able to test their non-standard predictions.

Two Black Holes Merge into One
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I_88S8DWbcU
VIRGO --- 0:18:04 10.12.2016
VIRGO --- 0:02:49 10.12.2016
Research offers clues about the timing of Jupiter's formation
http://phys.org/news/2016-12-clues-jupiter-formation.html

A peculiar class of meteorites has offered scientists new clues about when the planet Jupiter took shape and wandered through the solar system.

Scientists have theorized for years now that Jupiter probably was not always in its current orbit, which is about five astronomical units from
the sun (Earth's distance from the sun is one astronomical unit). One line of evidence suggesting a Jovian migration deals with the size of Mars.
Mars is much smaller than planetary accretion models predict. One explanation for that is that Jupiter once orbited much closer to the sun than
it does now. During that time, it would have swept up much of the material needed to create supersized Mars.

But while most scientists agree that giant planets migrate, the timing of Jupiter's formation and migration has been a mystery.
That's where the meteorites come in.

Meteorites known as CB chondrites were formed as objects in the early solar system—most likely in the present-day asteroid belt—slammed into each
other with incredible speed. This new study, published in the journal Science Advances, used computer simulations to show that Jupiter's immense
gravity would have provided the right conditions for these hypervelocity impacts to occur. That in turn suggests that Jupiter was near its current
size and sitting somewhere near the asteroid belt when the CB chondrules were formed, which was about 5 million years after formation of the first
solar system solids.

[http://cdn.phys.org/newman/gfx/news/hires/2016/584aa52d771f1.jpg]
VIRGO --- 22:03:38 9.12.2016
Výtečné!
The playful wonderland behind great inventions | Steven Johnson
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hLltkC-G5dY
VIRGO --- 0:19:17 9.12.2016
SOFIA Sees Super-Heated Gas Streams Churning up Possible Storm of New Stars
https://www.nasa.gov/.../sofia-sees-super-heated-gas-streams-churning-up-possible-storm-of-new-stars

Scientists on board NASA’s flying telescope, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, caught sight of roiling
material streaming from a newly formed star, which could spark the birth of a new generation of stars in the surrounding gas clouds.

[http://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/thumbnails/image/leflochimage-resize.png]
VIRGO --- 0:06:50 9.12.2016
Dark matter that talks to itself could explain galaxy mystery | New Scientist
https://www.newscientist.com/...5-100-dark-matter-that-talks-to-itself-could-explain-galaxy-mystery/

DARK matter might talk to itself. The mysterious substance that outweighs all visible matter
in the cosmos might be best explained if it’s able to interact with itself via an invisible force.

Take a look at any image of a galaxy and you will see that the centre is the brightest. With so much light – and
therefore mass – concentrated there, astronomers expected central objects to orbit faster than those on the outer rim.

But in the early 20th century, astronomers were surprised to find that galaxies’ outer stars appear to move about as fast
as their inner stars, suggesting that there is more matter that doesn’t meet the eye. The name given to the invisible stuff
is dark matter, and the standard paradigm suggests it is composed of weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs.

Now new research on galactic rotation curves – graphs showing the orbital speeds of stars versus their distance from
the centre of the galaxy – suggests the story might not be so simple.
VIRGO --- 0:03:35 9.12.2016
Chandra :: Photo Album :: SPT 0346-52 :: December 8, 2016
http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2016/spt0346/

SPT0346-52 is a galaxy found about a billion years after the Big Bang that has one of the highest rates
of star formation ever seen in a galaxy. Chandra's observations ruled out the presence of an actively
growing supermassive black hole, bolstering the case of extreme star formation in this galaxy.

[http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2016/spt0346/spt0346_525.jpg]
VIRGO --- 23:21:44 8.12.2016
VIRGO:

The ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter has imaged the martian moon Phobos.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8aKCP2_DfdY
VIRGO --- 22:54:43 8.12.2016