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Cosmos In Brief - Aktualní novinky vesmírného výzkumu v kostce
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VIRGO --- 19:31:33 25.4.2017

Launched on April 25, 2007, NASA’s Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere, or AIM, mission, has provided a wealth of new science
on the dynamics and composition of Earth’s upper atmosphere. Designed to study noctilucent, or night-shining, clouds, AIM’s data
have helped scientists understand a host of upper-atmosphere phenomena, from radio echoes to giant, planet-scale atmospheric waves.

VIRGO --- 19:12:23 25.4.2017
OTD in 1990: the $2.5 billion Hubble Space Telescope was deployed in space
from the Space Shuttle Discovery into an orbit 381 miles above Earth.

Hubble Deployment from Shuttle Cargo Bay - IMAX 3D
VIRGO --- 19:04:22 25.4.2017
Mysteries of Crown-like Structures on Venus' Surface Unveiled in New Study

On Venus, plumes of superheated rock from near the planet's core may rise up intermittently, destroy patches
of the planet's surface and create unique crown-shaped geologic features called coronae, a new study finds.

The new study suggests that the surface of Venus is more active than scientists previously thought, and the
findings could shed light on how the early Earth evolved, the researchers said.

VIRGO --- 18:44:59 25.4.2017
Very bright fireball spotted over Abilene, Texas on April 19, 2017
Fireball event

AMS event #1418-2017

Same bright fireball spotted over Amarillo, Texas on April 19, 2017

AMS event #1418-2017
VIRGO --- 18:33:30 25.4.2017
A matter of distance | ESA/Hubble

In space, being outshone is an occupational hazard. This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image captures a galaxy named NGC 7250.
Despite being remarkable in its own right — it has bright bursts of star formation and recorded supernova explosions— it blends
into the background somewhat thanks to the gloriously bright star hogging the limelight next to it.

This bright object is a single and little-studied star named TYC 3203-450-1, located in the constellation of Lacerta (The Lizard),
much closer than the much more distant galaxy. Only this way a normal star can outshine an entire galaxy, consisting of billions
of stars. Astronomers studying distant objects call these stars “foreground stars” and they are often not very happy about them,
as their bright light is contaminating the faint light from the more distant and interesting objects they actually want to study.

VIRGO --- 17:51:25 25.4.2017
Astronomers detect dozens of new quasars and galaxies

A team of astronomers led by Yoshiki Matsuoka of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) has detected a treasure trove
of new high-redshift quasars (or quasi-stellar objects) and luminous galaxies. The newly found objects could be very important for
our understanding of the early universe. The findings were presented Apr. 19 in a paper published on arXiv.org.

High-redshift quasars and galaxies (at redshift higher than 5.0) are useful probes of the early universe in many respects. They offer
essential clues on the evolution of the intergalactic medium, quasar evolution, early supermassive black hole growth, as well as
evolution of galaxies through cosmic times. Generally speaking, they enable scientists to study the universe when it looked much
different than it does today.

Recently, Matsuoka's team has presented the results from the Subaru High-z Exploration of Low-Luminosity Quasars (SHELLQs) project,
which uses multi-band photometry data provided by the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Subaru Strategic Program (SSP) survey. HSC is a wide-field
camera installed on the Subaru 8.2 m telescope located at the summit of Maunakea, Hawaii and operated by NAOJ. The researchers selected
nearly 50 photometric candidates from the HSC-SSP source catalog and then observed them with spectrographs on the Subaru Telescope and
the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), located on the island on the Canary Island of La Palma, Spain.

The observations resulted in the identification of 24 new quasars and eight new luminous galaxies at redshift between 5.7 and 6.8.

VIRGO --- 17:43:41 25.4.2017
Mars Trojans may be part of a planet that was destroyed long ago | New Scientist

Mars has an asteroid entourage, with nine so-called Trojans trailing in its wake. Now it seems these travelling
companions all had the same violent beginning: as the innards of a mini-planet, eviscerated in a violent collision.
Some remnants may even have been incorporated into the material that became Mars.

Trojans are distinct from the asteroids found in the asteroid belt, which begins about 101 million kilometres past Mars
and stretches toward Jupiter. While Trojans orbit the sun, like the asteroid belt, they are trapped in gravitational
sweet spots that ensure they will permanently trail or precede the planet in its trip around our star. These are known
as Lagrange points.

VIRGO --- 0:42:22 25.4.2017
An action shot of GMTelescope Mirror Segment 4 edge generating on the Large Optical Generator (LOG) machine.
Taken in Feb. 2017 at the University of Arizona's Richard F. Caris Mirror Laboratory. Photo Credit: Damien Jemison.

VIRGO --- 0:18:04 25.4.2017
Weird, hairy microbes discovered on volcano soon after eruption | New Scientist

Gone today, hair tomorrow. Soon after an underwater volcano erupted and wiped out all nearby life forms,
hardy bacteria moved in and covered the area in a huge mat of hair-like filaments.

These strange colonies were found by an expedition to Tagoro Volcano, near the Canary Islands, in 2014,
two years after an eruption that reshaped 9 square kilometres of the sea floor. The researchers explored
the area via a robotic submarine equipped with cameras and arms for collecting samples.

VIRGO --- 0:07:10 25.4.2017
Asteroid shock waves could have provided the building blocks for RNA - ScienceAlert

A now famous experiment conducted by chemists Stanley Miller and Harold Urey back in 1952 showed that even if we don't know for sure how the first living
cells formed, at least some of their molecular building blocks could have been produced by simple chemical reactions under conditions on ancient Earth.

Now, more than half a century later, researchers from France and the Czech Republic have used a similar experiment to expand this list of potential
ingredients to include all four RNA bases, filling in some possible stepping stones on the pathway from chemical soup to the origins of life.

While the results don't show how life probably formed, they do demonstrate that conditions on Earth roughly 3.5 to 4 billion years ago could have been
sufficient to produce the toolbox of compounds necessary for biochemistry.

Those conditions include what was probably an atmosphere without oxygen – referred to as a reducing atmosphere – and warm bodies of water containing
nitrogen and carbon-based molecules such as ammonia and methane.

Miller and Urey dissolved these two compounds in a sterile flask of water with some hydrogen gas for their experiment, letting it sit for a week before
shocking the solution with electricity to simulate lightning strikes.